Benny and whale

One day there was a gull called Benny lost his way over a large amount of water. And while Benny the gull searching the way saw  a big animal in the water and




decided to have a look. It was a huge whale. Benny the gull said ”hi my name is Benny” Then the whale smiled and said ”hi I’m toony .After that, Toony the whale



Said ”what you doing here, it is far away from the land?”. Benny the gull, I lost my way and I don’t know where exectally I am. Toony the whale, oh dear you must



be tired?, You can land on me and have a rest . Benny the gull was so happy and said ” oh thanks I really appreciate that” .Toony the whale, no worries it’s my



Pleasure; anyhow tell me about the flying because I really wish to fly one day. Benny the gull said ” oh my friend you wish to fly and i wish to swim and dive



”.”However because you asked me about the flying I will tell you but also I would like you to tell me about your life” Benny the gull said. Again he said” when you



Fly you can see everything from above so clear, but it is really hot when it sunny day , also if it is windy day you will be really fighting to be stable in the sky , in



Addition for me the flying is really hard at night, and also you will find lots of enemies in the sky for example the falcon, it’s not easy as you think my dear and this



is about me my friend . Toony the whale, I thought it is fun but it seems really dangerous. ”Any way now it’s my turn to tell you about the sea life ” Toony said.



Toony the whale says, it is really fascinating life down there but as it is beauty as it is dangerous, in the sea you have to be really brave and very focus or it is easy



to lose your life, it is exactly the same as the forest, and if I start talking about sea life I’m not going to finish but as you said about the flying that’s it is not easy as



you think also same to the sea, it is really hard to live” . Benny the gull says i think i will change my mind and i will forget about my wish. Finally Benny the gull took



off and Toony the whale dived away . and it was the end of the story.

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my life


Nowadays, lots of people invented heaps of things which make the life


easy and they keep on improving these things to make it easier than this


 for other people. However, there era people who do not appreciate what


 other people do for them. .Teenagers who am talking about and I used to


 be one of them. They like to show their skills without thinking about the


 end .Anyhow, in this paragraph am going to talk about story happened to


 i with my friend and it changed my life totally.



Since i was 12 years old i used to go out with my best brother to have fun


. We never pay attention to what our parents say we ignore their advises.


We reached 18 years old and we are getting worse in our attitude. In


 addition ,We had abed habit  which was how to deal with cars .We like to


exceed the limit and drifting cars. We continued on this till one day. My


best brother came to my room and he told me there is drifting cars tonight


in some where. He was really excited for that. My mom heard us while


 taking and she was begging us to not go but no used nobody listened to


her ..Anyway .we went there and the person who was looking after this


said to join this event you have to do a specific drift. I knew it is dead one


 and I was bit worried but my brother insisted to do it



He was driving the car and he was absolutely concentrating how to get in


that event .He lost control of that car and I lost him because we didn’t pay


attention to the death, that accident changed my life to the best but also it


kept sad moment in my heart.






In conclusion, now body completed, each one has weakness but the smart


one who change that to his benefits, If you keep it as a mindset that you


 are hopeless you would never get red of your problem. In my case it was


really hard to forgive my self about what happened but after awhile i


figure out that if i keep on blaming my self i will not fix what I did. so I


new life ,Currently am one of the most successfully people in this life. My


advise to other folks who have the same problem that do not give up in


this life and i would like you to know that it does not deserve you tsars




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poet Samuel Richardson


In my research, I am going to talk about the poet Samuel Richardson, his Age the (18th century), early life, and about his most and popular works in his life. and many other works. I will talk in details about his novels.

Then, I will discuss one of his famous works which called: Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded and the analysis and the plot of this novel.

The Eighteenth Century

The 18th century lasted from 1701 to 1800 in the Gregorian calendar.

However, Western historians may sometimes specifically define the 18th century otherwise for the purposes of their work. For example, the “short” 18th century may be defined as 17151789, denoting the period of time between the death of Louis XIV of France and the start of the French Revolution with an emphasis on directly interconnected events.

To historians who expand the century to include larger historical movements, the “long” 18th century [3] may run from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 to the battle of Waterloo in 1815[4] or even later.[5]

During the 18th century, the Enlightenment culminated in the French, Haitian and American revolutions. Philosophy and science increased in prominence. Philosophers were dreaming about a better age without the Christian fundamentalism of earlier centuries. This dream turned into a reality with the French Revolution, although it was later compromised by excess of the terror of Maximilien Robespierre. At first, the monarchies of Europe embraced enlightenment ideals, but with the French revolution they feared losing their power and joined wide coalitions with the counter-revolution.

The Ottoman Empire was undergoing a protracted decline, as it failed to keep up with the technological advances in Europe. The Tulip period symbolized a period of peace and reorientation towards European society, after victory against a burgeoning Russia in 1711. Throughout the century various reforms were introduced with limited success.

Great Britain became a major power worldwide with the defeat of France in the Americas in the 1760s and the conquest of large parts of India. However, Britain lost much of its North American colonies after the American Revolution. The industrial revolution started in Britain around the 1750s with the patenting of the steam engine. Despite its modest beginnings in the 18th century, it would radically change human society and the geology of the surface of the earth.

Samuel Richardson

(19 August 1689 – 4 July 1761) was an 18th-century English writer and printer. He is best known for his three epistolary novels: Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded (1740), Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady (1748) and The History of Sir Charles Grandison (1753). Richardson was an established printer and publisher for most of his life and printed almost 500 different works, with journals and magazines.

Richardson lost his first wife along with their five sons, and eventually remarried. Although with his second wife he had four daughters who lived to become adults, they had no male heir to continue running the printing business. While his print shop slowly ran down, at the age of 51 he wrote his first novel and immediately became one of the most popular and admired writers of his time.

He knew leading figures in 18th century England, including Samuel Johnson and Sarah Fielding. In the London literary world, he was a rival of Henry Fielding, and the two responded to each other’s literary styles in their own novels.

Richardson, one of nine children, was probably born in 1689 in Mackworth, Derbyshire, to Samuel and Elizabeth Richardson. It is unsure where in Derbyshire he was born because Richardson always concealed the location. The older Richardson was, according to the younger:

“a very honest man, descended of a family of middling note, in the country of Surrey, but which having for several generations a large number of children, the not large possessions were split and divided, so that he and his brothers were put to trades; and the sisters were married to tradesmen.”

His mother, according to Richardson, “was also a good woman, of a family not ungenteel; but whose father and mother died in her infancy, within half-an-hour of each other, in the London pestilence of 1665”.

The trade his father pursued was that of a joiner (a type of carpenter, but Richardson explains that it was “then more distinct from that of a carpenter than now it is with us”). In describing his father’s occupation, Richardson stated that “he was a good draughtsman and understood architecture”, and it was suggested by Samuel Richardson’s son-in-law that the senior Richardson was a cabinetmaker and an exporter of mahogany while working at Aldersgate-street. The abilities and position of his father brought him to the attention of James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth. However this, as Richardson claims, was to Richardson senior’s “great detriment” because of the failure of the Monmouth Rebellion, which ended in the death of Scott in 1685. After Scott’s death, the elder Richardson was forced to abandon his business in London and live a modest life in Derbyshire

Early life

The Richardsons were not constantly exiled from London; they eventually returned, and the young Richardson was educated at Christ’s Hospital grammar school. The extent that he was educated at the school is uncertain, and Leigh Hunt wrote years later:

“It is a fact not generally known that Richardson… received what education he had (which was very little, and did not go beyond English) at Christ’s Hospital. It may be wondered how he could come no better taught from a school which had sent forth so many good scholars; but in his time, and indeed till very lately, that foundation was divided into several schools, none of which partook of the lessons of the others; and Richardson, agreeably to his father’s intention of bringing him up to trade, was most probably confined to the writing school, where all that was taught was writing and arithmetic.”

However, this conflicts with Richardson’s nephew’s account that “‘it is certain that [Richardson] was never sent to a more respectable seminary’ than ‘a private grammar school” located in

Little is known of Richardson’s early years beyond the few things that Richardson was willing to share. Although he was not forthcoming with specific events and incidents, he did talk about the origins of his writing ability; Richardson would tell stories to his friends and spent his youth constantly writing letters. One such letter, written when Richardson was almost 11, was directed to a woman in her 50s who was in the habit of constantly criticizing others. “Assuming the style and address of a person in years”, Richardson cautioned her about her actions. However, his handwriting was used to determine that it was his work, and the woman complained to his mother. The result was, as he explains, that “my mother chid me for the freedom taken by such a boy with a woman of her years” but also “commended my principles, though she censured the liberty taken”.

After his writing ability was known, he began to help others in the community write letters. In particular, Richardson, at the age of thirteen, helped many of the girls that he associated with to write responses to various love letters that they received. As Richardson claims, “I have been directed to chide, and even repulse, when an offence was either taken or given, at the very time that the heart of the chider or repulser was open before me, overflowing with esteem and affect”. Although this helped his writing ability, he in 1753 advised the Dutch minister Stinstra not to draw large conclusions from these early actions:

“You think, Sir, you can account from my early secretaryship to young women in my father’s neighbourhood, for the characters I have drawn of the heroines of my three works. But this opportunity did little more for me, at so tender an age, than point, as I may say, or lead my enquiries, as I grew up, into the knowledge of female heart.”

He continued to explain that he did not fully understand females until writing Clarissa, and these letters were only a beginning.



In his final years, Richardson received visits from Archbishop Secker, other important political figures, and many London writers. By that time, he enjoyed a high social position and was Master of the Stationers’ Company. In early November 1754, Richardson and his family moved from the Grange to a home at Parson’s Green. It was during this time that Richardson received a letter from Samuel Johnson asking for money to pay for a debt that Johnson was unable to afford. On 16 March 1756, Richardson responded with more than enough money, and their friendship was certain by this time.

At the same time as he was associating with important figures of the day, Richardson’s career as a novelist drew to a close. Grandison was his final novel, and he stopped writing fiction afterwards. However, he was continually prompted by various friends and admirers to continue to write along with suggested topics. Richardson did not like any of the topics, and chose to spend all of his time composing letters to his friends and associates. The only major work that Richardson would write would be A Collection of the Moral and Instruction Sentiments, Maxims, Cautions, and Reflexions, contained in the Histories of Pamela, Clarissa, and Sir Charles Grandison. Although it is possible that this work was inspired by Johnson asking for an “index rerum” for Richardson’s novels, the Collection contains more of a focus on “moral and instructive” lessons than the index that Johnson was seeking.

After June 1758, Richardson began to suffer from insomnia, and in June 1761, he was afflicted with apoplexy. This moment was described by his friend, Miss Talbot, on 2 July 1761:

“Poor Mr. Richardson was seized on Sunday evening with a most severe paralytic stroke…. It sits pleasantly upon my mind, that the last morning we spent together was particularly friendly, and quiet, and comfortable. It was the 28th of May – he looked then so well! One has long apprehended some stroke of this kind; the disease made its gradual approaches by that heaviness which clouded the cheerfulness of his conversation, that used to be so lively and so instructive; by the encreased tremblings which unfitted that hand so peculiarly formed to guide the pen; and by, perhaps, the querulousness of temper, most certainly not natural to so sweet and so enlarged a mind, which you and I have lately lamented, as making his family at times not so comfortable as his principles, his study, and his delight to diffuse happiness, wherever he could, would otherwise have done”

Two days later, on 4 July 1761, Richardson died at Parson’s Green and was buried at St. Bride’s church near his first wife Martha.

During Richardson’s life, his printing press produced about 2,349 items. He wanted to keep the press in his family, but after the death of his four sons and a nephew, his printing press would be left in his will to his only surviving male heir, a second nephew. This happened to be a nephew that Richardson did not trust; he doubted the younger man’s abilities as a printer. Richardson’s fears proved well-founded, for after his death the press stopped producing quality works and eventually stopped printing all together. Richardson owned copyrights to most of his works, and these were sold after his death. They were sold in twenty-fourth shares, with shares in Clarissa bringing in 25 pounds each and those for Grandison bringing in 20 pounds each. Shares in Pamela, sold in sixteenths, went for 18 pounds each.

Biography of Samuel Richardson (1689-1761)

Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded


This article is about the novel. “Pamela” redirects here. For the name, see Pamela (name). For other uses, see Pamela (disambiguation).

Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded is an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson, first published in 1740. It tells the story of a beautiful but poor 15-year old servant-maid named Pamela Andrews whose master, Mr. B, a nobleman, makes unwanted advances towards her after the death of his mother whose maid she was since the age of 12. Mr. B is infatuated with her, first by her looks and then her innocence and intelligence but his high rank hinders him from proposing marriage. He abducts her and locks her up in one of his estates and attempts to seduce and ravish her. She rejects him continually refusing to be his mistress though she begins to realize that she is falling in love with him. He intercepts and reads her letters to her parents and becomes even more enamored by her innocence and intelligence and her continuous attempts to escape. Her virtue is eventually rewarded when he shows his sincerity by proposing an equitable marriage to her as his legal wife. In the second part of the novel, Pamela attempts to accommodate herself to upper-class society and to build a successful relationship with him. The story was a bestseller of its time and was very widely read, even though it also received criticism for its perceived licentiousness.

Plot summary

Lady Davers accepts Pamela. Mr. B explains to Pamela what he expects of his wife. They go back to Bedfordshire. Pamela rewards the good servants with money and forgives John, who betrayed her. They make a little “Airing” to a farmhouse and encounter Miss Goodwin, Mr. B’s child. Pamela would like to take her with them. They learn that Sally Godfrey is now happily married in Jamaica. Pamela is praised by the gentry of the neighbourhood who once despised her.


Original Sources

A publication, Memoirs of Lady H__, the Celebrated Pamela (1741), claims that the inspiration for Richardson’s Pamela is the true life marriage of a coachman’s daughter, Hannah Sturges, to the baronet, Sir Arthur Hesilridge in 1725. Samuel Richardson claims that the story was based on a true incident related to him by a friend about 25 years ago but did not identify who the protagonists were.


Literary significance and criticism


Pamela was the bestseller of its time. It was read by countless buyers of the novel and was also read aloud in groups. An anecdote which has been repeated in varying forms since 1777 described the novel’s reception in an English village: “The blacksmith of the village had got hold of Richardson’s novel of Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, and used to read it aloud in the long summer evenings, seated on his anvil, and never failed to have a large and attentive audience….At length, when the happy turn of fortune arrived, which brings the hero and heroine together, and sets them living long and happily…the congregation were so delighted as to raise a great shout, and procuring the church keys, actually set the parish bells ringing.”

The novel was also integrated into sermons as an exemplar. It was even an early “multimedia” event, producing Pamela-themed cultural artifacts such as prints, paintings, waxworks, a fan, and a set of playing cards decorated with lines from Richardson’s works.

Given the lax copyright laws at the time, many “unofficial” sequels were written and published without Richardson’s consent. There were also several satires of the novel, the most famous of which was An Apology for the Life of Mrs. Shamela Andrews by Henry Fielding, published under the pseudonym “Mr. Conny Keyber.” Shamela portrays the protagonist as an amoral social climber, who attempts to seduce “Squire Booby” while feigning innocence in order to manipulate him into marrying her. Another important satire was The Anti-Pamela; or Feign’d Innocence Detected (1741) by Eliza Haywood. Although not technically a satire, the Marquis de Sade‘s Justine is generally perceived as a critical response to Pamela, due in part to the former’s subtitle, “The Misfortunes of Virtue.”

At least one modern critic has stated that the rash of satires can be viewed as a conservative reaction to a novel that called class, social and gender roles into question[3] by asserting that domestic order can be determined not only by socio-economic status but also by moral qualities of mind.


 In my research, I chose to talk about Samuel Richardson for many reasons, He is a famous poet, whose fame has circled the globe for centuries, He wrote many poems, plays, and stories, His works affected on people and spirit them to interest in literature. Finally I hope you get benefits from this research and I hope also to provide you all information that help you for now and help you in the future.



1-    Introduction ………………………………………………………………………….1

2-    The eighteenth century ………………………………………………………….2-3

3-    Samuel  Richardson………………………………………………………………..3-4

4-    Early life………………………………………………………………………………….4-5

5-    Death ………………………………………………………………………………………6-7

6-    Biography of  Samuel Richardson……………………………………………..8

7-    Plot summary……………………………………………………………………………9

8-    Original sources…………………………………………………………………………9

9-    Literary significance and criticism reception………………………………9-10


11-referances …………………………………………………………………………………12

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Skimming & Scanning:

Easier – There are different styles of reading for different situations. The technique you choose will depend on the purpose for reading. For example, you might be reading for enjoyment, information, or to complete a task. If you are exploring or reviewing, you might skim a document. If you’re searching for information, you might scan for a particular word. To get detailed information, you might use a technique such as SQ4R. You need to adjust your reading speed and technique depending on your purpose.


Many people consider skimming and scanning search techniques rather than reading strategies. However when reading large volumes of information, they may be more practical than reading. For example, you might be searching for specific information, looking for clues, or reviewing information.


Harder – Web pages, novels, textbooks, manuals, magazines, newspapers, and mail are just a few of the things that people read every day. Effective and efficient readers learn to use many styles of reading for different purposes. Skimming, scanning, and critical reading are different styles of reading and information processing.


Skimming is used to quickly identify the main ideas of a text. When you read the newspaper, you’re probably not reading it word-by-word, instead you’re scanning the text. Skimming is done at a speed three to four times faster than normal reading. People often skim when they have lots of material to read in a limited amount of time. Use skimming when you want to see if an article may be of interest in your research.


There are many strategies that can be used when skimming. Some people read the first and last paragraphs using headings, summarizes and other organizers as they move down the page or screen. You might read the title, subtitles, subheading, and illustrations. Consider reading the first sentence of each paragraph. This technique is useful when you’re seeking specific information rather than reading for comprehension. Skimming works well to find dates, names, and places. It might be used to review graphs, tables, and charts.


Scanning is a technique you often use when looking up a word in the telephone book or dictionary. You search for key words or ideas. In most cases, you know what you’re looking for, so you’re concentrating on finding a particular answer. Scanning involves moving your eyes quickly down the page seeking specific words and phrases. Scanning is also used when you first find a resource to determine whether it will answer your questions. Once you’ve scanned the document, you might go back and skim it.

  When scanning, look for the author’s use of organizers such as numbers, letters, steps, or the words, first, second, or next. Look for words that are bold faced, italics, or in a different font size, style, or color. Sometimes the author will put key ideas in the margin.

  Reading off a computer screen has become a growing concern. Research shows that people have more difficulty reading off a computer screen than off paper. Although they can read and comprehend at the same rate as paper, skimming on the computer is much slower than on paper.

The meaning of Skimming and Scanning

Skimming refers to the process of reading only main ideas within a passage to get an overall impression of the content of a reading

How to Skim:

 Read the title.

 Read the introduction or the first paragraph.

 Read the first sentence of every other paragraph.

 Read any headings and sub-headings.

 Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs.

 Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases.

 Read the summary or last paragraph.

Scanning is a reading technique to be used when you want to find specific information quickly. In scanning you have a question in your mind and you read a passage only to find the answer, ignoring unrelated information.

How to Scan:

 State the specific information you are looking for.

 Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate the answer. For example, if you were looking for a certain date, you would quickly read the paragraph looking only for numbers.

 Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the information you are looking for.

 Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage.


 Differences between Skimming and Scanning

Skimming: If you are skimming a book, you should read the blurb, the preface and table of contents. The Chapter headings provide a reliable indication of the content of the book. You can turn the pages randomly and check its readability, style and seriousness in terms of treatment. You can focus your attention on subheadings, bold, italicized or underlined text, diagrams, graphs, charts and photographs, if any. If there are chapter summaries, you get the vital points quite easily. You can go to the text to find the details of points in the summary you found interesting. Once you find that the book is worth detailed study, you can go for it. If it is a work of fiction, you can easily form your assessment; you are not looking for the accuracy of facts.

An indirect advantage of skimming is that it improves your general reading speed. It saves your time and betters your learning efficiency. Suppose you are reading a second textbook in a subject, after studying thoroughly one standard textbook. You can afford to do a lot of skimming without any loss. If you practice skimming, you would be exposed to a larger volume of literature than a person who insists on reading it word by word. Research scholars or students pursuing specialized higher studies may have to go through a number of journals regularly. Unless Skimming is practiced, they would not be able to fulfil their obligations


Scanning: An illustration can help us to appreciate easily what scanning implies. Suppose you go to a festival crowd with a friend, but miss him in the surging throng. Your eyes travel quickly over the crowd to locate your friend’s face, totally ignoring all other faces. Scanning is a similar process in the world of rapid reading

Difference between Skimming and Scanning

Skimming implies looking for a general overview aimed at identifying the main ideas of a text. In Scanning, you move eyes quickly identifying the main ideas of the text .In scanning, you move your eyes quickly down the page seeking a specific word, phrase, number or idea. Unless you practice scanning, you may waste a lot a time while using reference books. In fact, drill in scanning is an essential part of training in the use of reference books.


Reading Faster

Students often must read and comprehend a tremendous amount of material. Being able to read rapidly is an important skill that will make schoolwork easier, as well as help you advance in your career. Most speed-reading methods are based on skim reading first and in reading groups of words. It takes discipline and a mind-set to become a super reader.


Questions you may have include:

How important is reading fast?

How is skim reading used?

How do you read groups of words?

This lesson will answer those questions. There is a mini-quiz near the end of the lesson.

Speed is important

It certainly is more enjoyable to be able to read something rapidly, instead of spending what seems like forever struggling through the words.

Students and workers improve

Besides the enjoyment factor, students need to get through a lot of reading material in as fast a time as possible. Efficient reading skills will help them in their schoolwork and help to improve their grades.

Workers must read reports, as well as research material, for their jobs. If they can read faster, with greater comprehension, their chance of a raise and a promotion is increased. Note that top executives usually have rapid-reading skills.

Improves comprehension

Although it is difficult to speed-read a complex chapter in a Mathematics book, using speed-reading techniques can help to improve your comprehension. This is especially true when you have to read a large amount of material that can numb your brain.

Skim reading

In skim reading, you just scan through the material, letting your eyes catch key words. This can give you a rough idea of the meaning of the material. Some speed-reading methods teach reading material two times. First, you skim-read the material, and then you read it over a second time, more carefully, but still trying to read rapidly.

Skim several times

When reading a large amount of material, you can first skim over the chapter and section titles to give you an idea of what the material is about. Then quickly scan through the material again to get a better idea of the topic. Finally, you read the assignment, but still reading rapidly.

Read first sentence

Since often the first sentence of each paragraph states the main idea of that paragraph, while the other sentences elaborate on that idea, you can skim read by just reading the first sentences. In some cases, you can get enough information by only reading the first sentence from each paragraph.

Unfortunately, some writers make their paragraphs so long, that they have several ideas in them, and others stick the important sentences in the middle. In such cases, you can’t use the first sentence method effectively.

Complex reading

With some complex reading–like Mathematics–you should still skim over the material, quickly looking at section titles and the equations and formulae. After you get an idea of what the material is about and where it is going, you can read it more carefully. Since you often may have to work out problems with a pencil, obviously your reading speed will not be as high as other type of reading.

Grouping words

Most people read one word at a time, saying the words to themselves. This is a slow way of doing the task, especially when your mind is capable of processing information at a much higher rate.

Look at groups of words

One of the primary tricks in speed-reading is to look at phrases and groups of words instead of individual words. Instead of reading word-by-word, you read in chunks of information. You don’t have to say the word to understand what it means. Practice with newspaper

Try reading several words, a phrase, or even a sentence at a time. A good way to practice this is to read newspaper articles by scanning down the column, digesting all the words across, instead of reading each word at a time. A newspaper column usually has 4 or 5 words per line, and you should be able to process all of them at once.

This method is one of the best for getting used to reading phrases instead of words. Just practicing reading this way should noticeably increase your speed.


If you think about reading faster, you will make an effort to pick up the pace. Reading speed is something you must work on and concentrate on until it becomes a habit.

Being able to read and comprehend the material at high speed is a skill that is worthwhile for students and people in business. Most methods involve reading chunks of information so that you are skimming or scanning the book or document.



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